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The Pantheon is a building of ancient Rome, built as a temple dedicated to all past, present and future deities. It was reconstructed by Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 128 AD, after the fires of 80 and 110 AD. they had damaged the previous construction of the Augustan age. The Pantheon building is inscribed in a perfect sphere. The height of the building is equal to its diameter and measures 43.44 m to 43.44 m. This characteristic responds to classical criteria of balanced and stable architecture. In the Pantheon these principles are summarized by the harmony of the lines and the perfect calculation of the geometries of the masses. At the beginning of the seventh century the Pantheon was converted into a Christian basilica, called Santa Maria della Rotonda, or Santa Maria ad Martyres, which allowed it to survive almost intact to the spoliations made to the buildings of the classical Rome of the popes. It enjoys the rank of minor basilica and is the only basilica in Rome as well as the patriarchal ones to still have a chapter.
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
The papal patriarchal basilica major archipretale Liberian of Santa Maria Maggiore, known simply as the “Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore”, is one of the four papal basilicas of Rome. Located on the top of the Esquiline hill, it is the only one to have preserved the original early Christian structure, even if enriched by subsequent additions. It was built by Pope Sixtus III (432-440), who dedicated it to the cult of Our Lady, whose divine motherhood had just been recognized by the Council of Ephesus (431). On 5 August each year, in memory of the Madonna della Neve, the so-called “miracle of snowfall” takes place: during a suggestive celebration a cascade of white petals is brought down from the dome of the Pauline Chapel. The construction took place on a previous church , which a widespread tradition has been the Madonna herself to inspire appearing in a dream to pope Liberio and to the patrician Giovanni and suggesting that the suitable place would have been miraculously indicated.
Piazza del Campidoglio
The Capitol, Martius (Sistina), is one of the seven hills on which Rome was founded. According to legend, the first settlement on the hill was founded by the god Saturn, where they were greeted the Greeks led by Hercules. The Capitol had to be inhabited since the Bronze Age, as evidenced by some pottery discovered at the foot of it, in the Sant’Omobono and in the excavation at the so-called Roman Garden. The Capitol is related the story of the storming of the fortress by the Sabines who, led by Titus Tazio, attacked the Romans, in revenge for the rape of the Sabines. Taken the fortress, through the treachery of Tarpeia, the Sabines, the Romans engaged in a war, which ended only because the Sabine women abducted, now wives and mothers of the Romans.
Basilica of St. John Lateran
The Most Holy Cathedral Papal Archbasilica Romana Major of the Holy Saviour and the Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, mother and head of all the churches of the City and the World is the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome. It is the first of the four papal basilicas and the oldest and most important church in the West. Nestled into the hillside of the Celio, the basilica and the vast surrounding complex (including the Pontifical Lateran Palace, the Palace of the Canons, ilPontificio Roman Major Seminary and the Pontifical Lateran University), despite being on the territory dellaRepubblica Italian, enjoy the privileges of extraterritoriality recognized by the Italian State to the Holy See, which therefore has the full and exclusive jurisdiction.
Piazza Venezia is a famous square in Rome. It is situated at the foot of the Capitol, where they cross some five of the most important streets of the capital: Via dei Fori Imperiali, Via del Corso, Via del Plebiscito-axis Corso Vittorio, the axis via C. Battisti- via Nazionale, street theater of Marcellus.
On the west side is the facade of the Palazzo Venezia, which was initially papacy: Pope Julius II watched from the balcony of the palace to the horse race barbs, which until 1883 was played along Via del Corso and ended near the square, in the disappearance Street Resumption of the barbs. Subsequently, from 1564 to 1797, hosted the Venetian representation at the Papal States. When the Congress of Vienna assigned to the Hapsburg territories of the Serenissima, the palace also followed the same fate and served as the embassy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1914, when it was confiscated by the state. In 1929, Benito Mussolini chose it as the seat of government from the balcony and delivered his speech to the “huge gatherings” fascist. For this reason, the square, which in those years had felt like the center of the city, was proclaimed “Forum of Italy”. Besides Palazzo Venezia, the original arrangement of the square has preserved the north side with the Palazzo Bonaparte, where he lived from 1818 until his death Ramolino Letizia, Napoleon’s mother. During the Christmas season in the square is placed a large decorated fir (moved from 2006 in front of the Colosseum in front of the exit of the metro Coliseum because of construction work on the new rail line), while the intersection with Via del Corso raised platform for the city police has long been an element of inspiration for many films and commercials, from Roman Holiday by William Wyler in to Rome with Love Woody Allen who directed the opening scene with Pierluigi Marchionne, actual watchful Police Roma Capitale.
Piazza Navona is one of the most famous squares in Rome. Piazza Navona is a symbol of Baroque Rome, with architectural and sculptural Gian Lorenzo Bernini (the Fountain of the Four Rivers in the middle of the square, which is the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile and the Rio de la Plata, the four corners dellaTerra) Francesco Borromini and Girolamo Rainaldi (the church of St. Agnes in Agony, in front of the fountain by Bernini) and Pietro da Cortona (author of the frescoes of the gallery of the Palazzo Pamphili). Piazza Navona has other two fountains: the Fountain of the Moor, sculpted by Giacomo della Porta and retouched by Bernini, located in the south of the square, and the Fountain of Neptune (originally fountain of Calderari), located in the north, work Gregory Zappala and Antonio Della Bitta. The square hosts a market that over time has become traditional. After the war, as well as to the steps of Trinita dei Monti and Galleria Alberto Sordi already Colonna Gallery, artists, painters and designers as they began to frequent the square by establishing extemporaneous easels to paint and exhibit, including for sale, the their creations; parallel, was born also the use of portrait photographs (also caricatured) for passersby. The square has also become a meeting place and performance artists “road” in the evenings.
The Trevi Fountain is the largest and one of the most famous fountains in Rome; is considered one of the most famous fountains in the world. The fountain, designed by Nicola Salvi and lying on one side of Palazzo Poli, was inaugurated in 1735 and belongs to the late Baroque.
The Colosseum is the largest amphitheater in the world, located in the city center of Rome, the most imposing monument of ancient Rome come down to us, known throughout the world as a symbol of the city of Rome and one of the symbols of Italy. Submitted in 1980 in the list of World Heritage Site by UNESCO, along with all the historical center of Rome, the extraterritorial zones of the Holy See in Italy and the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, in 2007 the complex was also included among New seven wonders of the world, following a competition organized by New Open World Corporation (NOWC). In ancient times it was used for gladiatorial shows and other public events (hunting shows, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology).
Via dei Fori Imperiali
The Imperial Forums are a series of monumental squares built over a century and a half (between 46 BC and 113 AD) in the heart of the city of Rome by the emperors: Forum of Caesar, the Forum of Augustus, the Temple of Peace, Hole Nerva, Trajan’s Forum, the Via dei Fiori.
Spanish Steps, the stairway of Trinita dei Monti, is one of the most famous squares in Rome. It owes its name to the palace of Spain, Embassy of the Iberian been to the Holy See. At the center of the square is the famous Fountain of Four Rivers, which dates from the early Baroque, sculpted by Pietro Bernini and his son, the most famous Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Right corner of the staircase there is the house of the English poet John Keats, who lived and died in 1821, now converted into a museum dedicated to his memory and that of Percy Bysshe Shelley, full of books and memorabilia of English Romanticism . The left corner there is, however, the tea room Babington’s founded in 1893. From the side of Via Frattina is the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, owned by the Holy See. In front of the facade, designed by Bernini (while the front side instead of Borromini), stands the column of the Immaculate Conception, which was built two years after the proclamation of the dogma (1856).
Castel Sant’Angelo, also known as the Mausoleum of Hadrian, is a monument of Rome, linked to the State of the Vatican through the fortified corridor of the “small step”. The castle has been radically changed many times in medieval and Renaissance located on the right bank of the Tiber, opposite the pons Aelius (current bridge Sant’Angelo) not far from the Vatican, in the district of Borgo.
St. Peter’s Basilica
The basilica of St. Peter’s Basilica Sancti Vatican City, symbol of the Vatican State, which is crowned the monumental St. Peter’s Square. It is the largest of the four papal basilicas of Rome. It is not however the cathedral church of the diocese since that title belongs to the Roman basilica of St. John Lateran, which is also the first in dignity being Mother and Head of all the Churches of the City and the World. As the Papal Chapel, located adjacent the Apostolic Palace, the Basilica of St. Peter is the seat of the main manifestations of Catholic worship and is therefore in solemn ceremony on the occasion of the papal celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter, the rites of Holy Week, the proclamation of the new popes and the funeral of the departed ones, the opening and closing of the Jubilees and the canonization of the new saints.